Formative assessment as gathering data to identify students who are approaching, meeting and exceeding expectations so that appropriate measures can be taken (remedial, consolidation, enrichment).
Journals can be used to assess student learning etc.
1. Realism - realistic situations
2. Context - avoid unfamiliar ones
3. Hidden Assumptions - no passengers as the train arrived at the first station
What is the value of MCQ?
To credit students who can solve a problem but unable to articulate their reasoning in conventional way.
In Singapore national test, MCQ is used in primary schools to test basic concepts and skills (10 items 10%). They are also used to assess problem solving (5 items 10%).